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name? Zond (-3?) - USSR 27 September 1967
(date may be wrong, not corroborated in Proton Manual. Launch failure (SL-12 Proton). Was this a lunar attempt? "Zond-2" designator already earmarked for Mars '64, "Zond-3" for Luna in '65.
Soft landing on 10Nov1967 at xx N x yyy W, first rocket takeoff from Moon. Return to Lunar map.
First flight of Apollo+Saturn V booster, reentered 09Nov1967.
Flyby attempt. 2nd stage failure (SL-12 Proton).
Soft landing on 10Jan1968 at xx N x yyy W, Surveyor pgm ends. Return to Lunar map.
First all-up test with uprated Saturn 1, unmanned, ascent & descent stage tests, lunar module flight test, AS reentered 24Jan1968, DS reentered 12Feb1968.
Launch failure (SL-6 Molniya).
Manned precursor? (SL-12 Proton), in translunar orbit?.
Unmanned command module test with Saturn V, despite 1st stage pogo & loss of 2 engines on same side, 2nd stage malf, 3rd stage restart failure, CM reentered 04Apr1968, recovered where?.
Earth-moon mass & gravity study, in lunar orbit.
Manned lunar precursor?, 2nd stage failure (SL-12 Proton).
First lunar flyaround, reentered 21Sep1968, recovered in Indian Ocean.
First manned Apollo flight (Schirra, Cunningham, Eisele) on Saturn 1B with CM & SM, 163 earth orbits, reentered 22Oct1968, recovered in Pacific Ocean.
Second unmanned circumlunar lunar flight, capsule depressurized during return, double dip reentry with aero lifting, chute failed, crash landed in USSR 17Nov1968.
First manned circumlunar flight (Borman, Lovell, Anders), on Saturn V, no LM, 10 lunar orbits, reentered 27Dec1968, recovered in Pacific Ocean.
Automated sample return, 2nd stage failure (SL-12 Proton).
1st stage failure of superbooster (SL-15 N-1) at T+69 sec. See Ed Cameron's N-1 page.
First flight of LM (+CM & SM) on Saturn V, redocking (McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart), reentered 13Mar1969, recovered in Pacific Ocean.
Second manned circumlunar flight (Stafford, Young, Cernan) on Saturn V, approached 15 km, reentered 26May1969, recovered in Pacific Ocean.
Automated sample return, 2nd stage failure (SL-12 Proton).
Launch failure from Tyuratam (SL-? ?).
1st stage failure of superbooster (SL-15 N-1) at T+0.25 sec. destroying launch facility. Docking mission of Manned Heavy Soyuz on SL-13 (D-1 or Proton) for same day 03Jul1969 scrubbed.
Attempted sample return? or manned precursor? crash landing on 21Jul1969 at xx N x yyy W in Mare Crisium, after 52 orbits and 2 burns. Return to Lunar map.
First human landing on the Moon 2017 UT 20Jul1969 (Neil Armstrong & Edwin Aldrin in LM, Michael Collins in CM) at 0.71 N × 23.63 E in Mare Tranquillitatis, 2:56 hr EVA, 21.6 hr on surface, 30 orbits, reentered 24Jul1969 w/21.7 kg of lunar rocks, recovered in Pacific Ocean. EALSEP science station returned data until ??Sep1969. Return to Lunar map.
3rd Soviet unmanned circumlunar lunar flight, reentered & landed in USSR 14Aug1969.
Automated sample return, 3rd/4th stage separation failure, stages & payload reentered 27Sep1969.
Lunar lander and rover, 4th escape stage fired wrong vector, stage & payload reentered 24Oct1969.
Second human landing on the Moon on19Nov1969 (Pete Conrad & ALan Bean in LM, Richard Gordon in CM) at 2.94 S × 23.45 W in Oceanus Procellarum, very close to site of Surveyor 3. 2 EVAs, 31.6 hr on surface, reentered 24Nov1969, recovered in Pacific Ocean. Returned 34.4 kg of lunar samples. ALSEP12 science station returned data until 01Oct1977. Return to Lunar map.
Soviet L-1E lunar module first test flight. 2nd stage failure (SL-13 Proton).
1st stage failure; range safety destruct (SL-12 Proton). Also test of L-1E module?
Explosion of oxygen tank in SM aborted mission (James Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise), reentered after circumlunar flight 17Apr1970, recovered in Pacific Ocean.
Lander touched down on 20Sep1970 at 0.41 S × 56.3 E in Mare Fecunditatis, returned 105 gram soil sample. See a video of the Soviet ASR probe landing with retrorockets, scooping up a soil sample, and blasting off again on our Russians in Space v2.1 hybrid CD-ROM for Wintel & Mac O/S. Return to Lunar map.
Flew by Moon, reentered 27Oct1970.
Lunokhod-1 rover and lander set down on 17Nov1970 @ 38.28 N x 35 W in Mare Imbrium, traversed 80? km over 11 months, tx'd 200 pans, 20,000+ pix, soil analyses. See a video of the Soviet moon rover in action on our Russians in Space v2.1 hybrid CD-ROM for Wintel & Mac O/S. Return to Lunar map.
Successful test of Soviet T2K lander minus legs in LEO on SL-13 Proton D-1? Reentered 21Sep1983.
Prototype Soviet lunar orbiter LK flight test on SL-13 Proton D-1. Modified Zond and flight qual for Blok D stage. In 2464 km × 5189 km × 55.9 ° earth orbit.
Third human landing on the Moon on 05Feb1971 (Alan Shepard & Edgar Mitchell in LM, Stuart Roosa in CM) at 3.67 S × 17.46 W at Fra Mauro, ? EVAs, ? hr on surface, played first round of lunar golf, reentered 09Feb1971, recovered in Pacific Ocean. Returned 42.9 kg of lunar samples. ALSEP14 science station returned data until 01Oct1977. Return to Lunar map.
Second unmanned test of Soviet lunar lander T2K on SL-13 Proton D-1 booster, reentered 10Dec1995.
1st stage launch failure of superbooster (SL-15 N-1) carrying mockups of LK & T2K at T+51 sec.
Fourth human landing on the Moon on 30Jul1971 (David Scott & James Irwin in LM, Alfred Worden in CM) at 26.11 N × 3.66 E at Hadley Rille near lunar Appenines. First manned lunar rover, ? roving EVAs + 1 EVA on return trajectory, traversed 11.2 km in ? hr on surface. Reentered 07Aug1971, recovered in Pacific Ocean. Returned 76.8 kg of lunar samples. ALSEP15 science station on surface returned data until 01Oct1977. P&F subsatellite launched from CM on 04Aug1971, data return until ??Jul1972, in lunar orbit. For more details, see The Apollo 15 Flight Journal. The AFJ is a companion to the ALSJ? and records the flight of Apollo 15 using air/ground transcripts, commentary and photographs. Return to Lunar map.
Test of manned lunar hdwe T2K? on SL-4 Soyuz booster, reentered 12Aug1981.
Objective? impacted after 54 orbits on 11Sep1971 at 3.57 N x 50.5 E in Mare Fecunditatis. Return to Lunar map.
Orbiter returned lunar photos, in lunar orbit.
Lander & automated sample return set down @ 3 ° 32 min N × 56 ° 33 min E near Apollonius in Mare Fecunditatis. Capsule & 55 gram (or 30 g?) soil sample recovered 25Feb1972. See a video of the Soviet ASR probe landing with retrorockets, scooping up a soil sample, and blasting off again on our Russians in Space v2.1 hybrid CD-ROM for Wintel & Mac O/S. Return to Lunar map.
Fifth human landing on the Moon on 23?Apr1972 (John Young & Charles Duke in LM, T.K. Mattingly in CM) at 9.00 S × 16.00 E at Descartes crater, ? roving EVAs on surface + 1 EVA on return trajectory, 71 hr on surface, reentered 27Apr1972, recovered in Pacific Ocean. Returned 94.7 kg samples. ALSEP16 science station returned data until 01Oct1977. P&F subsatellite launched from CM on 24Apr1972, impacted 29May1972 at xx N x yyy W. Return to Lunar map.
Erroneous? range safety destruct of superbooster (SL-15 N-1) at T+107 sec during 1st stage fire, 2nd stage probably was OK. End of N-1 program.
Sixth and last human landing on the Moon on 15Dec1972 (Gene Cernan & Harrison Schmitt in LM, Ronald Evans in CM) at 20.17 N × 30.75 E at Taurus Littrow, ? roving EVAs on surface for 30.5 km (longest = 7:37 hr) + 1 EVA on return trajectory, 75 hr on surface, found Genesis rock, reentered 19Dec1972, recovered in Pacific Ocean. Returned 110.5 kg samples. ALSEP17 science station returned data until 01Oct1977. Return to Lunar map.
Lunokhod-2 rover set down on 15?Jan1973 @ approx 25.85 N × 30.45 E in Mare Serenitatis near Le Monnier crater-ring, traversed 37? km for five months, returned 80,000+ pix. See a video of the Soviet moon landing and rolling off its platform on our Russians in Space v2.1 hybrid CD-ROM for Wintel & Mac O/S. Return to Lunar map.
Radioastronomy Explorer B in lunar orbit. (probably a deep space mission so located for radio silence)
Flyby of the Moon, returned pix, on way to flyby of Venus in 1974 and three flybys of Mercury in 1974, in solar orbit, died at ? km on when?.
Lunar probe, in orbit.
Impacted in Mare Crisium on 06Nov1974. Return to Lunar map.
4th? stage failure (SL-12 Proton).
Last Soviet/Russian lunar mission. Lander & automated sample return set down @ 12.75 N × 62.20 E in Mare Crisium. Returned 170 grams & recovered 18Aug1976. Return to Lunar map.
Robotic interplanetary probe on circuitous six-year trajectory with multiple gravity assists, launch delayed by Challenger disaster, launched from Shuttle Atlantis in LEO (STS-34) on IUS, high gain antenna failed, data tx on low gain
Flew by Venus once on 09Feb1990
Flew by Earth/Moon system twice during gravity assists in 08Dec1990 and 08Dec1992 on trajectory to Jupiter, discovered Aitken Basin on South Pole (largest impact basin in solar system?);
Flew thru asteroid belt twice in 1991 and 1993
now active in circumjovian orbit.
Probe flew by Moon 15?Mar1990, reentered (Earth?) 11Apr1993.
Deployed from Muses A, contact lost after separation, in lunar orbit.
Lunar mapper entered orbit 19Feb1994; detected possible signs of water at poles, spun out of control during burn to intercept near Earth asteroid 1620 Geographos on 07May1994, died, in solar orbit.
Solar wind monitor. In 0.567 x 1.62 million km x 21.8 ° "distant prograde earth orbit". 32nd lunar flyby @ 7600 km on 19Aug2000. Science return from Moon?
Comsat stranded in useless transfer orbit by 4th stage malfunction (SL-12 Proton). Repurchased by builder, succcessfully rescued via double lunar flyby using new resonant orbital hopping theory. In GEO. Data returned from lunar flyby?
Mapped gravity & elemental distribution inc. hydrogen (water) with magnetometer, and alpha, gamma, & neutron spectrometers from low polar orbit; impacted on 31Jul1999 at xx S x yyy W near the south pole. First human burial (sample of Gene Shoemaker's ashes) on another celestial body. Return to Lunar map.
Orbiter will arrive 4 years late in Sep2003 due to wrong burn during second slingshot by Moon. Data returned from lunar flyby?
Note: after much thought, I decided to include in this class any missions which took place in LEO but were solely dedicated to developing Lunar exploration. After all, many of these milestones were critical to the eventual success of the Moon landings. Space physics experiments of broad applicability (e.g. radiation measurement, magnetic mapping) were not included for this reason. Multiple visits to the same body by the same spacecraft (e.g. GEM) do not count as multiple missions (even if they do require multiple visits to Capitol Hill for funding). Multiple visits to different primaries do. A mere gravity assist maneuver without science return doesn't really count as a mission, either - a "flyby" requires at least one instrument to be pointed in the general direction of the celestial body. This was not an accounting issue until a few Big Science missions (e.g. Galileo, Project Vega) flew some very complex trajectories with multiple gravity assists.
Credit goes out to TRW Space Log 1957-1996, The Planetary Report published by The Planetary Society, Proton Mission Planner's Manual, and Jonathan's Space Report. A tip o' the #2 amber solar filter to David Portree DSFPortree@aol.com for his sharp eyes.
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